Our methodology

In 2016, we conducted our first study to pinpoint the behaviors that lead to financial and emotional confidence for US workers. In 2021 we updated our research, conducting a second study to track their changing attitudes and confidence.




Our methodology to discover the financial and emotional confidence of US workers:



Representative survey

Guardian commissioned a representative national survey of 5,012 workers 18+ working full time or part time, never retired, with household incomes of $50k or more.

Conformed to census

Our results were weighted by age, gender, household income, ethnicity and region to conform to US Census parameters.

Naturally occurring proportions

This includes an oversample of 3,360 workers with household income of $100k+. The oversample was weighted down to naturally occurring proportions.


This Working Americans Study was conducted online July 1, 2021, through July 19, 2021, and is trended to the previous wave conducted in 2016 where comparable.

5-year trends

The attitudinal segmentation scheme that was developed in 2016 was applied to the 2021 data. It is based on the same methodology to identify any changes to the segments over the past five years.

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